Taxes

Top Personal Income Tax Rates in Europe

Most countries’ personal income taxes have a progressive structure, meaning that the tax rate paid by individuals increases as they earn higher wages. The highest income tax rate individuals pay differs significantly across European OECD countries—as shown in today’s map.

The top statutory personal income tax rate applies to the share of income that falls into the highest tax bracket. For instance, if a country has five tax brackets, and the top income tax rate of 50 percent has a threshold of €1 million, each additional euro of income over €1 million would be taxed at 50 percent.

Denmark (55.9 percent), France (55.4 percent), and Austria (55 percent) had the highest top statutory personal income tax rates among European OECD countries in 2021. Hungary (15 percent), Estonia (20 percent), and the Czech Republic (23 percent) had the lowest personal income top rates.

Top Personal Income Tax Rates in Europe
European OECD Country Top Statutory Personal Income Tax Rate
Austria (AT) 55.0%
Belgium (BE) 53.5%
Czech Republic (CZ) 23.0%
Denmark (DK) 55.9%
Estonia (EE) 20.0%
Finland (FI) 51.2%
France (FR) 55.4%
Germany (DE) 47.5%
Greece (GR) 54.0%
Hungary (HU) 15.0%
Iceland (IS) 46.2%
Ireland (IE) 48.0%
Italy (IT) 47.2%
Latvia (LV) 31.0%
Lithuania (LT) 32.0%
Luxembourg (LU) 45.8%
Netherlands (NL) 49.5%
Norway (NO) 39.4%
Poland (PL) 36.0%
Portugal (PT) 53.0%
Slovakia (SK) 25.0%
Slovenia (SI) 50.0%
Spain (ES), Valencia 54.0%
Sweden (SE) 52.3%
Switzerland (CH) 44.8%
Turkey (TR) 40.8%
United Kingdom (GB) 45.0%

Source: PwC, “Worldwide Tax Summaries,” accessed Feb. 1, 2022, taxsummaries.pwc.com.

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